+1 (951) 902-6107 info@platinumressays.com

Bipolar 1 disorder Psychopathology Essay
Bipolar 1 disorder Psychopathology Essay
The existence of complex approaches that are used to study and diagnose ailments and conditions that affect both children and adults is an indication of how psychopathology has evolved within both the typical and atypical environment. The contemporary society is plagued with numerous problems that are entirely diverse and this has led to the mushrooming of different forms of psychological disorders. Diseases and conditions such as mood disorders, eating abnormality, psychosis or even depressive mood swings are all common in society and they target both children and adults. The fact that a person can suffer from either of this ailments can be a low moment in life and it is very essential to understand their diagnosis and treatment. This can help an individual to learn how to manage the disorder and avoid any activities that may trigger its relapse. This paper is an essay that discusses one psychopathological disorder and provides details of how it is diagnosed, its causes as well as the most effective treatment regimens.
Topic Chosen for the Essay
Bi-Polar I Disorder in the category of Depressive Mood Disorders

Section A
Description of the Disorder

Bipolar disorders are generally characterized by a severe shift in moods, behavior and thinking such that the person experiences the highs of being extremely happy to the lows of being seriously depressed (McDonal et al, 2015). Specifically bipolar I disorder is a form of mental illness where the affected person experiences manic episodes at some point in their lives. This manic episodes are usually elevated mood levels that are abnormal such that the behavior that results can easily disrupt the entire life of the person (Yao et al, 2015) Bipolar 1 disorder Psychopathology Essay.
The drastic changes in moods or the manic stunts normally alternate between highs of being extremely excited to lows of being depressed. This is why bipolar I disorder is characterized by recurring cycles that revolve around mania and depression. This disorder becomes a problem when the person is within either the depression stage or the manic phase. However, the person gets to lead a normal life in between these two abnormal phases (Khaleghi et al, 2015). It should also be noted that bipolar I disorder can also occur differently such that there are mixed episodes of both depression and mania. This condition has been shown to occur for a long time such that it can last for even up to one week.
This means that this depressive disorder can be highly severe due to the extreme episodes of mania and depression. The occurrence of manic episodes can be experienced in the form of irritability, mystical feelings, creativity, inappropriate or unusual behavior, positive moods or even high levels of energy (Yao et al, 2015). The mystical experience has been known to reach a delusional intensity that often leads to the development of other psychotic symptoms. What’s more, the high levels of energy are the ones that lead to the excitement that is usually seen in the manic stages where a patient can find it difficult to sleep or even speak coherently (Yao et al, 2015).
In extreme cases, the manic episodes have seen some people exhibit weird behavior such that they develop bizarre thoughts that make them believe someone is pursuing them. Additionally, others tend to believe that they have development superpowers overnight that give them the ability to fly across the region or locality of their choice (McDonal et al, 2015).
Bipolar I disorder is capable of affecting both children and adults and the severity of the symptoms can be similar in both categories regardless of the age difference. This is why it is important to seek early help and medical attention in case some of these signs are noticed.

Diagnostic Criteria

The diagnosis of bipolar I disorder is often done by making careful observations of the symptoms experienced by a patient and the length at which they last. This duration and frequency are important because they help in ruling out a misdiagnosis of the ordinary mood swings (McDonald et al, 2015). This means that the criteria used to make a prognosis of whether a person has bipolar I disorder depends on whether they suffer from the abnormal elevations in moods that can bring about irritability. At the same time, psychologists also look out for the presence of increased energy levels that can be manifested in the form of participation in extremely tedious tasks (Khaleghi et al, 2015).
Doctors also look out for the lack of regular sleep patterns where some patients are known to sleep for very few hours after which they wake up feeling extremely excited. This condition can cause them to remain awake for long periods and some of them can even spend a week without sleeping. This is one of the symptom that can really assists the psychologist to make a very conclusive diagnosis on the severity of the bipolar I disorder (Khaleghi et al, 2015).
The other majority symptoms are also specifically assessed using the criteria developed by the Diagnostic, Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders or the DSM-V that is developed by the association of American psychiatrists. This criteria is self-explanatory such that the psychologist or the psychiatrist is supposed to ask questions that narrow in on the status of one’s mental health (Yao et al, 2015). What’s more, doctors will also tend to ask if there is any family history of someone that has suffered from this depressive condition to rule out any genetic component. The ability to express oneself coupled with the ability to maintain long-term relationships is another important element that is used to diagnose if a person has bipolar I disorder (McDonald et al, 2015). The combination of the majority of this symptoms can enable the psychiatrist or psychologist to make a prognosis of whether the person is suffering from this depressive mood disorder.

Etiology : How And Why This Disorder Develops

The etiological agent or exact cause of bipolar I disorder remains unknown and many doctors often link its occurrence in children and adults to a number of biological factors. The majority of psychiatrists and psychologists often believe that a stressful event in life can be a very strong trigger than can end up causing this mood disorder (Khaleghi et al, 2015). This is in addition to other factors that are related to genetics and physical composition of an individual. The genetic composition of a person can predispose a person into developing bipolar I disorder since the condition is hereditary. In fact, more than 80% of all genetic factors place any person at risk of developing this diseases (Khaleghi et al, 2015).
This means that in case a parent has or develops this disorder, then there is a 10% chance that their child will also develop the disease. The situation is even made worse if both parents suffer from the condition because the risk of developing bipolar I disorder is increased to 40%. At the same time, there are some brain chemicals and neurotransmitters that have been shown to trigger the onset of this condition.
Serotonin is one of the important neurotransmitters that is responsible for the mood swings that are experienced by people (Yao et al, 2015). Therefore, any abnormality in the release and transmission of this chemical is bound to result in a mood disorder such as bipolar. Other medical illnesses have also been shown to cause this disease such that the drugs prescribed can act as a stimulant that can trigger the onset of this condition (Cedar Crest, 2016).             Additionally, bipolar I disorder has also been shown to occur in some children or adults when they face a difficult and stressful event in the course of their lives. For instance, the loss of one parent through death or even family separation and divorce can have a negative effect on the later life of a person (Yao et al, 2015). This can easily lead to a person developing this disorder because the traumatic experience easily interferes with their brain function. The understanding of the etiology of bipolar I disorder is very important because it can help a person to seek the best treatment plan possible.

Section B
Treatment Approaches

The three treatment plans that have been shown to be effective when it comes to the handling of bipolar I disorder include medication, patient education as well as physical assessment. The main medication that is used to treat bipolar I disorder is categorized into three main classes such that there are mood stabilizers, antidepressants as well as antipsychotics (Cedar Crest, 2016). The use of mood stabilizers aims at reducing the manic and depressive periods so that the patient can have longer periods of a normal life. Drugs such as lithium carbonate, valproic acid and even Depakote are the most common ones that are prescribed for people with this mood disorder (Yao et al, 2015).
The common denominator with these drugs is that they strive to reduce the episodes of both mania and depression while imposing less harm to the patient’s mental state. On the other hand, antipsychotics and antidepressants try to minimize the symptoms of this disorder by trying to streamline the function of the brain (HelpGuide.org, 2016) Bipolar 1 disorder Psychopathology Essay. Physical assessment and patient education are equally effective approaches for treatment of bipolar I disorder because they strive to reduce the risk of having unusual or weird behavior during the manic stage. The two strategies have been tested and tried on both adults and children and their success rate has been shown to be high (Cedar Crest, 2016).
Patients are usually taught how to manage their condition by avoiding the triggers that lead to the extreme behaviors. This is one of the ways that they can ensure that they lead a better life as they also combine the positive benefits of medication.

Treatment Plan

The diverse plans that are employed in treatment depend on the age of the patient as well as their immediate environment. There are some challenges that a youth experiencing this disorder can face and this can largely impact on the chosen form of treatment. One of the setbacks they can face at home is interacting well with their peers or siblings. In school, the person may have a different time concentrating in class especially when they begin experiencing the episodes of depression or mania. In the community, a person that suffers from bipolar I disorder can have a hard time trying to contribute to the sensitive discussions of the overall welfare of its members.
This is because their reasoning will always be doubted and people will not think it is credible enough to be utilized. In such a case, the treatment plan to be used must be very specific so that the individual is able to manage their condition (Yao et al, 2015). This plan requires to identify the specific challenge and then proceed to deciding on the best intervention approach to use. For instance, if the person commonly suffers from poor concentration in class, then it would be wise to use patient education as a way of ensuring that the person learns what triggers their depression and how they can avoid it. This plan can go a long way in helping the person take charge of their disorder and have a near-normal experience in the classroom.

Treatment Resources

There are different bodies and institutions that offer medical assistance and help to people that suffer from bipolar I disorder. One such location to obtain this resources is the Canadian Mental Health Association that offers assistance to victims suffering from this depressive disorder (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2016).  Timberline Knolls also specializes in catering for the medical needs of people with this mood disorder (Timberline Knolls, 2016). Additionally, Mood disorders Canada also focuses on helping people with Bipolar I disorder to slowly heal from the effects of this condition (Mood disorders Canada, 2016). Moreover, patients also receiving advice and counselling to help them manage the condition. These three places provide comprehensive assistance that seeks to see the full recovery of people with this mood disorder.
The high prevalence rates of depressive and mood disorders within the global population is an indication that people’s lifestyle is characterized by a lot of stressful conditions. Bipolar I disorder happens to be quite common among most people where there is an alteration in the level of moods and feelings. The patient oscillates between frames of being either too excited or too depressed such that they can easily do some things that they would never attempt when they are in a normal state. The fact that there is modern medication that can be used to manage this condition provides hope for the millions of patients suffering from this condition. It is also important that the victims seek counselling and advice so that they can be able to handle the unforeseen effects of their ailment.
Canadian Mental Health Association.(2016). Mental health for all. Retrieved on 14 March 2016 from https://www.cmha.ca/mental-health/understanding-mental-illness/bipolar-disorder/
Khaleghi, A., Sheikhani, A., Mohammadi, M. R., & Nasrabadi, A. M. (2015). Evaluation of Cerebral Cortex Function in Clients with Bipolar Mood Disorder I (BMD I)     Compared With BMD II Using QEEG Analysis. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 10(2), 93-    99.
McDonald, K. C., Bulloch, A. M., Duffy, A., Bresee, L., Williams, J. A., Lavorato, D. H., &            Patten, S. B. (2015). Prevalence of Bipolar I and II Disorder in Canada. Canadian Journal         of Psychiatry, 60(3), 151-156.
Mood disorders Canada. (2016). Mood Disorders Society of Canada (MDSC)  Retrieved on 14 March 2016 from http://www.mooddisorderscanada.ca/
Timberline Knolls. (2016). All the facts on bipolar I disorder. Retrieved on 14 March 2016 from             http://www.timberlineknolls.com/mood-personality/bipolar-disorder/
Yao, J., Xu, Y., Qin, Y., Liu, J., Shen, Y., Wang, W., & Chen, W. (2015). Relationship between             Personality Disorder Functioning Styles and the Emotional States in Bipolar I and II
Disorders. Plos ONE, 10(1), 1-10. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117353
Date Due:          Tuesday’s Class-March 22, 2016
To be submitted in class.
Friday’s Class-March 24, 2016 due to Good Friday Holiday, the research essay will be due Thursday March 24, 2015 by NOON in the CYW office (446E). There will be a box to submit the assignment AND don’t forget to sign the Assignment Submission Form.
Value:                30%
The goals of the assignment are to help you:

be better prepared for the field of CYW/CYC when working with

children and youth with a variety of mental health issues.  It is important to understand the terminology, behaviours/symptoms, etiologies and interventions in order to work effectively with the population.

become more knowledgeable about finding and using varied research sources.
further develop your critical thinking skills and support your points with evidence.
discipline yourself to follow a scholarly research format to document in-text sources and a reference page (bibliography).
compose a well-organized, clear, concise, research paper to expand your knowledge on a subject relating to child psychopathology.


This paper must be 6-8 pages (not including the title or reference page)-pages exceeding the limit will not be read.
Your paper should contain an introduction and conclusion
Typewritten and double-spaced
Cover/title page in APA style (which should include your name, course and section, date, and the instructor’s name) with a title of your research essay

You are to select and research (ONE) disorder from the list provided that affects children and adolescents.  You will identify and describe the diagnostic criteria, symptoms, prevalence and recommended treatment approaches as outline in the criteria for section A, B and C.
You must use at least 3 academic sources in addition to your textbook.  If you access sources over the internet they must be academic/published sources.   Class power point slides and Wikipedia is NOT an adequate research resource-if you use Wikipedia or other secondary resources that are not credible, you will receive a grade of “0” for the research portion of the assignment.
A guide to Research Process can be found at the following link:
To receive full marks you must show evidence that you have thoroughly researched your topic. Your paper must be professionally presented using APA (American Psychological Association) format and include a reference page. All work must be correctly referenced using in text citation as per APA guidelines.
FAILURE TO CREDIT YOUR SOURCES MAY BE CONSIDERED PLAGIARISM WHICH CAN RESULT IN A “0” FOR THE ASSIGNMENT.  The Guard Against Plagiarism policy is outlined in the course outline and is expected to be used for this assignment.  Please look at the library website for information on using APA format.  
A guide to APA can be found at the following link:
**See Course Outline for policy on late assignments**
Research Topics
The following is a list of topics to be chosen for the assignment.

Disorder Categories
Examples-Select One for the Essay

Depressive Mood Disorders
Ø  Major Depressive Disorder
Ø  Persistent Depressive Disorder
Ø  Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
Ø  Bi-Polar I Disorder
Ø  Bi-Polar II Disorder
Ø  Cyclothymic Disorder

Personality Disorder
Ø  Borderline Personality Disorder
Ø  Antisocial Personality Disorder

Eating Disorders
Ø  Anorexia Nervosa
Ø  Bulimia Nervosa
Ø  Binge Eating Disorder

Psychotic Disorders
Ø  Brief Psychotic Disorder
Ø  Schizophrenia
Ø  Substance/Medication-Induced Psychotic Disorder

Somatoform Disorders
Ø  Somatic Symptom Disorder
Ø  Illness Anxiety Disorder
Ø  Conversion Disorder
Ø  Factitious Disorder
Ø  Dissociative Identify Disorder
Bipolar 1 disorder Psychopathology Essay

A completed paper will include the following:
Section A:   


Description Of The Disorder
Ø  Provide a clear description of the chosen disorder; what this disorder “looks like” (the typical or characteristic behaviours shown by an individual with this disorder)
3 Marks

Diagnostic Criteria
Ø  Clearly outline the DSM-V criteria for diagnosis (what symptoms need to be present and how long do the symptoms need to be present for a diagnosis)
Ø  how prevalent is this disorder
3 Marks

Etiology (How/Why The Disorder Develops)
Ø  Identify and explain what makes a child/adolescent more susceptible to developing this disorder (risk factors/etiological theories)
3 Marks

Section B:

Treatment approaches
Ø  Identify and describe (3) treatment approaches that have been demonstrated to be effective in working with children/adolescents with this diagnosis
3 Marks

Treatment Plan
Ø  Identify and describe (3) challenges that a youth experiencing this disorder might encounter (one at home, one at school and one in the community) AND how a youth is negatively impacted in each setting/domain
Ø  Provide a treatment plan that a CYW/CYC would use to help the client function more successfully
BRIEF EXAMPLE: (It is important to use an essay style format)
Presenting Problem/Behaviour/Symptom/Challenge:
Ø  Clearly indicate the presenting problem/behaviour/symptom/challenge (make sure it is specific and clear to one behaviour)
§  What needs to be addressed
Treatment Strategy/Intervention:
Ø  Clearly identify the treatment strategies/interventions (research based)
§  What specific approaches/steps will be taken to implement the strategies/interventions
Reasoning For This Strategy/Intervention:
Ø  Clearly indicate why this specific problem/behaviour/symptom/challenge is being targeted AND how this strategy/intervention will help to address that particular problem
9  Marks

Treatment Resources
Ø  Research (3) different resources in the GTA that will provide services for someone who has been diagnosed with this disorder
Bipolar 1 disorder Psychopathology Essay
Ø  What specific services do they offer  AND explain why this would be a good resource
Ø  Must provide an address or website link
3 Marks

Section C:

Documentation and Mechanics
Ø  Use of APA throughout the paper
Ø  Proper citing and referencing of work
Ø  Must provide a reference page (minimum of 3 appropriate sources)
Ø  No spelling/grammatical error
Ø  No errors with sentence structure and punctuation
Ø  Paper flows well from one topic/idea/point to the next
Ø  Meets min/max page requirements

Grading Rubric:


Description Of The Disorder
(3 Marks)
Ø  Clear description of the disorder; typical or characteristic behaviours
Ø  Impact on functioning
Ø  Prevalence

Diagnostic Criteria
(3 Marks)
Ø  Clearly outlines the DSM-V criteria for diagnosis
Ø  Symptoms/duration/prevalence

(3 Marks)
Ø  Explains various risk factors/etiologies                                                                   

Treatment approaches
(3 Marks)
Ø  Describes treatment approaches and their effectiveness                                       

Treatment Plan
(Challenges are described and negative impact explained)
(9 Marks)
Ø  Presenting problem identified
Ø  Treatment strategy explained
Ø  Rationale provided
Ø  Presenting problem identified
Ø  Treatment strategy explained
Ø  Rationale provided
Ø  Presenting problem identified
Ø  Treatment strategy explained
Ø  Rationale provided



Treatment Resources
(3 Marks)
Ø  Identify 3 resources, services offered and explanation of why they would be a good resource Bipolar 1 disorder Psychopathology Essay
Ø  Website/address provided for each

Documentation & Mechanics
(6 Marks)
Ø  Proper citing/referencing of work (using APA throughout the paper)
Ø  Provided reference page(minimum of 3 appropriate sources)
Ø  No errors with spelling/grammar/punctuation/
sentence structure
Ø  Paper flows well from one topic/ idea/point to the next
Ø  Meets min/max page requirements

Final mark



D- to D+
C- to C+ 
B- to B+
A to A+

Academic Misconduct
Evidence of unethical procedures
Paper is incomplete
Does not consistently meet section A, B, C criteria
Paper is poorly organized and lacks focus
Poor understanding of the topic chosen
Paper requires considerable editing for grammar, spelling and sentence structure; paper does not flow and irrelevant to the topic; disjointedness is clear and evident throughout the paper
Lack of appropriate resources u

Platinum Essays