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In a 3- to 4-page paper, identify the video you selected and address the following:

What group therapy techniques were demonstrated? How well do you believe these techniques were demonstrated?
What evidence from the literature supports the techniques demonstrated?
What did you notice that the therapist did well?
Explain something that you would have handled differently.
What is an insight that you gained from watching the therapist handle the group therapy?
Now imagine you are leading your own group session. How would you go about handling a difficult situation with a disruptive group member? How would you elicit participation in your group? What would you anticipate finding in the different phases of group therapy? What do you see as the benefits and challenges of group therapy?
Support your reasoning with at least three peer-reviewed, evidence-based sources, and explain why each of your supporting sources is considered scholarly. Attach the PDFs of your sources.

Analyzing Group Techniques
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a time-limited psychotherapeutic approach that has three phases namely; beginning, middle, and end. The collective approach requires a therapist to be able to identify an individual’s target diagnosis and the interpersonal context in which it presents. IPT puts much emphasis on stressful events of life transitions, deficits linked to the onset, perpetuation or exacerbation of present symptoms interpersonal disputes, and grief while assisting patients to connect with social supports and improve the nature and quality of their relations (Cuijpers et al., 2016). The initial phase includes the formation of a therapeutic alliance, in the middle phase, a therapist applies interpersonal problem-focused therapeutic guidelines and in the ending phase, both the client and therapist consolidate gains, review contingency plans, and adaptive interpersonal strategies. Although IPT was initially noted to be effective in the management of depression, today, evidence from currently existing research indicates that it is effective in the management of other mental health issues such as anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and substance abuse disorders.
In a group setup, IPT is effective in helping people to address the relationship and personal issues by focusing on their interpersonal relations. The primary purpose of group IPT   is to address individual difficulties and encourage the individual development of group members.  Therefore, a therapist will select members for a group that comprises individuals who can collectively benefit from IPT therapy as well as contribute to the personal development of other group members. In this paper, the author analyzes the group techniques used during an IPT group therapy session for a client named Jimmy who had a substance use disorder. The author discusses and demonstrates the group techniques illustrated during the session with evidence from supporting literature, what the therapist did well, what the author would have handled differently, and insights gained from watching how the therapist handled the group therapy session.
Group Therapy Techniques, How They Were Demonstrated With Literature Support
An important group technique that was demonstrated during the session is that of releasing tension in the beginning stage. Before the session began, Jimmy was in a lot of discomforts to share his deepest feelings, thoughts, and secrets with group members. However, when he first spoke, all group members who had realized the tension tried to make the environment more comfortable. For instance, one member of the group thanked Jimmy for sharing and another acknowledged that everyone has secrets. To add on, other group members shared their secrets. One member admits how she had done huge stuff on a project; another member shared how he used his grandfather’s pension money when he was sent to get it from the post office. Another group member admitted that he used to steal from his family although under totally different circumstances. According to Hauber, Boon & Vermeiren (2019), sharing does not only promotes universality and comfort but also increased cohesiveness and released tension amongst group members.
Another group therapy technique that was demonstrated was that of catharsis which helped to build trust, confidence and to promote disclosure. In the beginning stage of the IPT session, Jimmy was not ready to disclose much of his secrets, thoughts, feelings, and issues. This group technique was demonstrated by group members who were ready to disclose very shameful aspects of their lives that played a major role in relieving guilt, pain, or stress. By people being ready to disclose aspects of individual lives, it left a clear message of trust that brought members together by permitting them to take risks and make further disclosures. This had a positive impact on Jimmy and the group. As other group members demonstrated to identify with Jimmy, they also took risks to expose their vulnerability. This interaction took the group to a higher level of interpersonal sensitivity which is another group therapy technique.  Interpersonal sensitivity was demonstrated through Mark when he shared an experience that was similar to that of Jimmy while historically focusing on the details of the disclosure. Hauber, Boon & Vermeiren (2019) highlight that, disclosure can only happen in a group when there is individual readiness and cohesiveness to disclose Analyzing Group Techniques. It is for this reason that the therapist did not force disclosure despite powerful agents of change.
The technique of interpersonal learning was also demonstrated through the active interaction of group members. After group members obtained a deeper understanding of themselves through a genuine emotional interpersonal experience, the therapist took time to illuminate the process and provide feedback to group members. Interpersonal learning began when   Jimmy shared his problematic behavior of stealing his mum’s medication. After sharing, he observed the feedback and reaction from other group members to determine the validity of the feedback. According to Hauber, Boon & Vermeiren (2019), this approach influenced Jimmy to reflect and accept responsibility for the outcomes of his problematic behavior with a resolution to change the ineffective behavior.
The last group technique that was evident was that of instilling hope. This was possible since group members were in different stages of the psychotherapy process. This technique was demonstrated when Jimmy admitted to having continued feelings of shame. To help him overcome these feelings, Tim offered him a classic intervention disclosure that provided further meta-disclosure by questioning Jimmy of what he was afraid would happen if he shared his feelings, thoughts, and issues. Through Tim’s intervention, Jimmy opened up and expressed the likelihood of people disrespecting and rejecting him as the root of his fears. On the contrary, his fear did not occur. Instead, group members instilled hope in him by acknowledging how they respected and admired his courage and honesty to share rather than focusing on his past actions.  This approach demonstrated that, in IPT, when an individual realizes that they are not judged based on the historical actions that they individually judge themselves, they can play a major role in helping another person to give up their self-judgment and let go of past events (Hauber, Boon & Vermeiren, 2019).
What the Therapist Did Well
It was impressive that the therapist used a directive approach to lead the group during the entire IPT session. Although it is commendable for therapists to combine both the directive and non-directive approach, the latter can make group members feel completely lost during therapy. On the other hand, by using a directive psychotherapeutic approach, the therapist was able to ensure that the process was directly relevant. A directive therapist usually assumes a more active role that includes providing feedback, interpretations, expressing opinions, making suggestions and recommendations.
The therapist also demonstrated traits of an effective leader and enabler through active listening and allowing turn-taking with the aim of modeling behaviors of group members. She talked less but listened more, a trait that revealed her as less dominating and controlling. As a result, every member of the group was able to share their feelings, experiences, and thoughts. Apart from creating a sense of universality, solidarity, and cohesiveness in IPT, turn-taking increases a therapist’s responsiveness and strengthens the sense of group members. On the other hand, active listening is a significant skill that therapists explore to develop healthy and positive interactions with clients (Jones, Bodie & Hughes, 2019). It also promotes a therapists’ ability to recall the most vital feelings, events, and issues conveyed by a client.
The therapist was empathetic. She demonstrated a perfect understanding of Jimmy’s experiences even though Jimmy had not explicitly described his feelings or thoughts to her in the beginning stage of the IPT session. The empathy demonstrated by the therapist made Jimmy feel that his values and past behaviors will not be judged especially if they conflicted with the therapist’s values.
What to Handle Differently
The author would neither introduce individual reactions nor well-intended comments during the IPT group therapy session. This is in particular to the therapist’s comment ‘I was wondering if you answered my question though?”. In psychotherapy, when a therapist demonstrates individual reactions or well-intended comments, it can negatively impact the therapeutic alliance with clients since each client interprets reactions differently. In most cases, clients tend to misinterpret the therapist’s reactions or comments. When this happens, it can either result in non-disclosure, non-compliance with psychotherapy, and in worse cases, termination of psychotherapy.
Insights Gained
The major insight gained in watching the therapist was the significance of being an effective leader and enabler in an IPT group and the need to listen more but talk less during group therapy sessions.  According to Jones, Bodie & Hughes (2019), talking less and listening more is a characteristic of an active listener and active listening helped members of the group to feel appreciated, worthy and respected. Effective leadership was demonstrated through a directive approach to lead the session. As a result, the group members responded positively by interacting on a higher and deeper level through personal disclosures, it promoted continuous engagement, positive and open communication among group members Analyzing Group Techniques.
How to handle A difficult Group Member
If the author was conducting a group therapy session, I would handle a difficult group member first by determining the readiness stage of the client, giving the client choices, and focusing on his/her strengths. Determining the client’s change would help to determine the need for therapy to move them from their readiness stage to the next rather than influencing individual change. Giving the client choices is a strategic approach towards giving him/her the chance to make an informed decision while actively engaging them in the process. On the other hand, focusing on the client’s strengths would help to increase optimism and attachment.
Explain Why Each of Your Supporting Sources Is Considered Scholarly
The studies by Cuijpers et al., (2016), Hauber, Boon & Vermeiren (2019), and Jones, Bodie, & Hughes (2019) are all scholarly sources since they have long and specific titles with more than a single author for each article. Just below the title, each of these articles has an abstract which is a summary of an entire article. Besides, the body of each of these sources is clearly structured   in   the following sections, background/introduction, methods, discussion and the conclusion. The authors have used tables as visuals to present statistical findings and concluded with a reference list.
IPT is a form of the time-limited psychotherapeutic approach used to manage mood disorders, substance abuse disorders, and eating disorders. This form of psychotherapy is based on the following two major principles; that interpersonal relations have a significant impact on people’s mental health, and the aforementioned disorders are manageable by focusing on building stronger and healthier interpersonal skills. Its major goals are; to resolve an individual’s issues and improve social skills. In this paper, the author discussed the group techniques used during an IPT group therapy session for a client named Jimmy who had a substance use disorder. The group techniques demonstrated included; interpersonal sensitivity, interpersonal learning, catharsis, altruism, releasing the tension, and universality.  What the therapist did well include; directive approach to lead the group during the entire IPT session, active listening and, allowing turn-taking and being empathetic.
CATS CATS (29th September 2016). Interpersonal Group Therapy for Addiction Recovery Demonstration. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szS31h0kMI0. Watched on  21st March 2021
Cuijpers, P., Donker, T., Weissman, M. M., Ravitz, P., & Cristea, I. A. (2016). Interpersonal psychotherapy for mental health problems: a comprehensive meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(7), 680-687.
Hauber, K., Boon, A. E., & Vermeiren, R. (2019). Therapeutic factors that promote recovery in high-risk adolescents intensive group psychotherapeutic MBT program. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 13, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-019-0263-6
Jones, S. M., Bodie, G. D., & Hughes, S. D. (2019). The impact of mindfulness on empathy, active listening, and perceived provisions of emotional support. Communication Research, 46(6), 838-865 Analyzing Group Techniques.

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