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The student must then post 1 reply to another student’s post. The reply must summarize the

student’s findings and indicate areas of agreement, disagreement, and improvement. It must be

supported with scholarly citations in the latest APA format and corresponding list of references.

The minimum word count for Integrating Faith and Learning discussion reply is 250 words.

The student must then post 1 reply to another student’s post. The reply must summarize the

student’s findings and indicate areas of agreement, disagreement, and improvement. It must be

supported with scholarly citations in the latest APA format and corresponding list of references.

The minimum word count for Integrating Faith and Learning discussion reply is 250 words.

2

**Descriptive Statistics, Ordinal Scale and Dichotomous Variable **

John Michael Mendola

BUSI820-Quantitative Research Methods (B05)

School of Business Liberty University

May 30, 2024

**Author Note**

John Michael Mendola

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to John Michael Mendola. Email: [email protected]

**D3.4.1. Using Outputs 4.1a and 4.1b:**

**What is the mean visualization score?**

** **The mean visual score is 5.24 (Morgan et al., 2019).

**What is the skewness statistic for math achievement test? What does this tell us?**

The skewness statistic for the math achievement is 044. This indicates that the variable is only slightly skewed (Morgan et al., 2019).

**What is the minimum score for the mosaic pattern test? How can that be?**

The minimum for the mosaic pattern −4.0. Although showing a negative measure may be an indication of an error, the visual graphs depicts measurements in the positive and negative domains. Showing a negative number indicts that a participant scored below the curve and perhaps was penalized for a late submission or other factors.

**D3.4.2. Using Output 4.1b:**

**For which variables that we called scale, is the skewness statistic more than 1.00 or less than –1.00?**

From looking at the chart, it seems that the fathers education and grades in high school have a skewness between more than 1.00 or less than -1.00 (Morgan et al., 2019).

**Why is the answer important?**

Skewness is not significantly when the value is less than 2.5 of the different from normal. (Morgan et al., 2019).

**Does this agree with the boxplot for Output 4.2? Explain.**

It seems to agree with the boxplot, by indicating that these variables identified better scores (Morgan et al., 2019).

**D3.4.3.Using Output 4.2b:**

**How many participants have missing data? **

There are four participants who are missing data (Morgan et al., 2019).

**What percent of students have a valid (non-missing) motivation scale or competence scale score? **

The ** **total amount of students that have a valid motivation scale or competence score is ** **94.7% (Morgan et al., 2019).

**Can you tell from Outputs 4.1 and 4.2b how many are missing both motivation scale and competence scale scores? Explain.**

In Output 4.1b, the data indicates that there were 73 competence scale scores and 73 motivation scale scores in total. Output 4.2b shows that only 71 completed both of the scores. Since none of the participants are missing motivation and competence scores, two are missing from each of the scores, and four are missing at least one of the scores (Morgan et al., 2019).

**D3.4.4. Using Output 4.4:**

**Can you interpret the means? Explain. **

I don't know the interpretation; however, adding up all of the means and dividing the numbers of variables gives you a combined score of .44

**How many participants are there altogether? **

** **There are a total of 75 participants.

**How many have complete data (nothing missing)? **

** **All participants completed the data; 55% represented an input number of “1,” and 45% represented an input number of “0”.

**What percent are in the fast track? **

The percentage of students that were fast tracked were 45 percent.

**What percent took algebra 1 in h.s.?**

79 percent of the students took Algebra 1 in Highschool.

**D3.4.5.Using Output 4.5:**

**9.6% of what group are Asian-Americans? **

9.6 percent of the students who participated in the study and answered the ethnicity

question identified themselves as Asian Americans. Within this sample, some participant's sections were blank, while others entered more than one type of ethnic group (Morgan et al., 2019).

**What percent of students have visualization 2 scores of 6? **

5.3 percent of the students have scored a 6 in the Visualization 2 category. None of these are missing data in this category, which leaves the valid percent and the percent the same measurement (Morgan et al., 2019).

**What percent had such scores of 6 or less?**

When analyzing the data, the cumulation percentage columns indicated that the participants with a score less than 6 were 70.7 percent (Morgan et al., 2019).

**Reference**

Morgan, G. A., Barrett, K. C., Leech, N. L., & Gloeckner, G. W. (2019). IBM SPSS for

Introductory Statistics (6th ed.). Taylor & Francis. https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/books/9781000011753

Morgan, G. A., Barrett, K. C., Leech, N. L., & Gloeckner, G. W. (2019). IBM SPSS for Introductory Statistics (6th ed.). Taylor & Francis. https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/books/9781000011753 Morgan, G., Leech, N., Gloeckner, G., Barrett, K. (2020). IBM SPSS for Introductory Statistics (5th Ed.). New York, NY Morgan, G., Leech, N., Gloeckner, G., Barrett, K. (2020). IBM SPSS for Introductory Statistics (5th Ed.). New York, NY Top of Form

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