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1.   Milgram's Obedience to Authority study and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment are both renowned but controversial studies in psychology. One notable violation of research ethics in the Stanford Prison Experiment was the lack of informed consent. Participants were not adequately informed about the potential psychological harm they might experience, nor were they aware of the extent to which their behavior would be manipulated. This contravenes the ethical principle of informed consent outlined by the American Psychological Association (APA).

   Another violation was the lack of protection from harm. Participants in the Stanford Prison Experiment were subjected to psychological distress and potential long-term consequences without proper safeguards in place to protect their well-being. This breaches the APA's ethical principle of minimizing harm to participants.

   To make the study more ethically sound today, researchers could prioritize informed consent by providing detailed information about the study's purpose, potential risks, and the right to withdraw at any time without penalty. Additionally, measures should be implemented to ensure the psychological well-being of participants throughout the study, such as regular debriefing sessions and access to mental health support if needed.

   Regarding the question of whether similar insights into obedience and social roles could be gained with more ethical considerations in place, it's possible that researchers could still uncover valuable findings. By ensuring participants' rights are respected and their well-being protected, researchers may still observe behaviors related to obedience and social roles, albeit potentially with different nuances.

   Regarding the ethical aspect of studying only white males, it's important to recognize the limitations this imposes on the generalizability of findings. A more culturally diverse sample would provide a broader understanding of human behavior and how it may vary across different demographics. Including participants from diverse backgrounds could yield insights into how cultural factors influence obedience and social roles, enriching the study's findings and enhancing its applicability to a wider range of populations.

   My question for the class "What are some potential ethical dilemmas researchers might encounter when conducting psychological studies, And how can these dilemmas be addressed to ensure the ethical treatments of participants?"

2.  n the Milgram shock study, the ethics were violated because the participants were told the truth, and they were bullied to keep doing the experiment. The two ways I would change the experiment would be to make sure everyone understands the experiment and the risk that goes with it. This would lead them to sign a consent form stating they understand the experiment and their rights.” Having integrity is important because people need to be able to trust whoever is doing the experiment.” American Psychological Association (2017) This allows people to be safe, so do not think bad happens. I would also make sure it is fair for everyone, and not just pick all male. For this experience, they lost people trust because one of them told them to stop and they did not listen to them. People need to think for themselves if it is right or wrong. It should not matter. A higher up is telling them what to do. People should know what is morally right and wrong. “There shouldn't be physical or mental harm when doing an experiment.” Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2015)  

I think with Milgram you see obedience more because someone higher up is telling them to push buttons to deliver the shock. With Zimbardo the guards did what they wanted to the prisoners because they let the power go to their head. They did not listen to the no hitting rule, and other things. 

I do not think it was ethical that Milgram and Zimbardo only study white males, because that's. Not being fair. That would be considered discrimination. The study might differ if they did diverse cultures and added females because everyone is different in their own way. So might not like it, but they will do it anyway. I think the females will stop when someone says stop or if they look like they are in pain. The guards in the Stanford experience could have done worse to the females with that power went to their head as well. 

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