Respond to the question using the lessons and vocabulary found in the readings. Support your answers with examples and research. Your responses should clarify your understanding of the topic. They should be your own, original, and free from plagiarism. Follow APA format for writing style, spelling and grammar, and citation of sources.
Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. Respond to at least two of your classmates. Participate in the discussion by analyzing each response for completeness and accuracy and by suggesting specific additions or clarifications for improving the discussion question response. Complete your participation for this assignment by the end of the week.
Just as humans live and die, so does the cells in which we are composed of. The lifespan of a cell is determinant on the type and integrity of the cell. While death of a cell can occur for many reasons, the two main causes of cell death are necrosis and apoptosis (McCance & Huether, 2019). Necrosis occurs when cells sustain accidental injury (Minikel, 2013). Apoptosis refers to a systematic type of cell death in which cells that are damaged strategically eliminates itself or other harmful cells in order to protect the organism (Minikel, 2013). While each process results in death of the cell, necrosis consists of swelling of the cells and apoptosis engages in shrinking it. The swelling during necrosis sends out an immune response to the area of damage resulting in inflammation. Immune responses are typically not noted during the process of apoptosis.
The force used to move water against the cell membranes is known as Hydrostatic pressure (McCance & Huether, 2019). The movement of water across a semi- permeable membrane is osmosis and the resistance needed for hydrostatic pressure to oppose this movement is osmotic pressure (McCance & Huether, 2019). When particles that do not freely move along the membrane are present an Oncotic pressure is created (McCance & Huether, 2019).
Free radicals can lead to damage in the myocardial system. The myocardial system references the muscular tissue of the heart. The process that the free radicals undergo can lead to cell death in the myocardial system due to the oxidation and reductant process (Kurian, Rajagopal, Vedantham, & Rajesh (2016). This process, which can be referred to as myocardial ischemia, can cause serious rhythmic aberrations with the heart or heart failure.
Kurian, A. G., Rajagopal, R., Vedantham, S. & Rajesh, M. (2016). Retrived from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/1656450/
McCance K., L., & Huether, S., E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children (8th ed.) St Louis, MO: Mosby Inc
Minikel, E. V. (2013). Cell biology 11: apoptosis & necrosis. Retrieved from https://www.cureffi.org/2013/04/28/cell-biology-11-apoptosis-necrosis/
Classmates response #2;
- Describe the similarities and differences of necrosis and apoptosis in regards to the above clinical scenario and diagnosis.
Myocardial infarction (MI) or in layman terms a heart attack, is a very serious condition that requires immediate expert medical intervention. It occurs when a coronary artery in this case the descending branch of the left coronary artery having blocked blood flow for some time, leading the heart muscle to be starved of much needed oxygen and thus causes the heart to stop pumping and heart cells to die (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2019). The lack of blood flow to the vessels called ischemia, brings about scarcity of adequate oxygen leading to Martin’s diagnosis. An MI produces irreversible cell death once there is a prolonged lack of blood flow to the heart. Once the heart muscle has been deprived of oxygen for more than 20 minutes, non-reversible hypoxic injury brings about cell demise and tissue necrosis (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2019).
Necrosis is not alone as a type of cell death it has a rival so to speak called apoptosis. Apoptosis is a regulated cellular death that is a naturally occurring part of the human biology where cells kill themselves to make room for new ones. A major difference in these two types of cell death, is that apoptosis is a good neighbor because it does not elicit an inflammatory response. Therefore, it does not damage surrounding cells whereas necrosis is not as friendly and causes injury to its neighbors by being messy and spilling the contents of the necrotic cells (Gaman et al., 2018).
- What is the role of hydrostatic and oncotic pressure in regulation of blood pressure for this patient?
Hydrostatic pressure plays a significant role in the vascular system as it is the mechanical force that pushes blood in a vessel every time the human heart beats (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2019). This type of pressure is the catalyst for moving fluids into the capillaries from the interstitial space and vice versa. Where as osmotic or oncotic pressure, depends on selective permeability in the membranes and the availability of proteins to move fluids between the interstitial space and the capillary (Darwish & Lui, 2019).
- Explain the role of free radicals and myocardial death.
Free radicals participates in the process of destroying tissue by interrupting the balance between the manufacturing of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defenses (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2019). Myocardial death is a result of ischemic injury that is not reversed. Free radicals such as hydroxy radicals and superoxide anions are by products of too much reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and have been shown to bring about contractile failure and structural damage to the myocardium (Kehrer & Klotz, 2015).
Darwish, A., & Lui, F. (2019, April 11). Physiology, colloid osmotic pressure. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541067/
Gaman, L., Dragos, D., Vlad, A., Robu, G. C., Radoi, M. P., Stroica, L., Badea, M., & Gilca, M. (2018). Phytoceuticals in acute pancreatitis: Targeting the balance between apoptosis and necrosis. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5264592
Kehrer, J. P., & Klotz, L. O. (2015). Free radicals and related reactive species as mediators of tissue injury and disease: Implications for health. Critical Reviewers in Toxicology, 45(9), 765-798. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10408444.2015.107415
McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for diseases in adults and children. (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.