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Liberty University Religiosity and Spirituality Lab Report Discussion

Liberty University Religiosity and Spirituality Lab Report Discussion

Question Description

Lab Project Overview and Instructions

This assignment will give you an opportunity to develop a research question, read published research to discern relevance to your project, choose the correct research design and analysis, collect data, run the statistical test, interpret the results, and present them in written form. The assignment is divided into 4 phases, with certain tasks due at different times throughout the course. It is very important to turn work in on time at each of the due dates, as the later sections of the lab depend on work performed in the earlier sections.

Please note you are NOT allowed to quote sources for any portion of this assignment. You can paraphrase when necessary but are encouraged to synthesize when possible. All phases should be written succinctly using the guidelines provided in your assigned readings / presentations, and formatted using current APA conventions. Any references to APA Manual sections are referring to the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020), herein referred to as the “APA Manual”.

Research Question and Background

Religiosity and spirituality can influence every facet of a person’s life. Studies show its relationship with job satisfaction, anxiety, stress, political ideology, and overall happiness, to name a few. It can also be examined across the lifespan or in relation to aspects from one’s childhood. However, how people define and examine religiosity and spirituality varies considerably.

The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) is a five-item self-report scale that assesses three domains of religiosity: organizational religiosity (OR), non-organizational religiosity (NOR), and intrinsic religiosity (IR) (Koenig & Bussing, 2010). Part of its original intent was to standardize how people measure religiosity for comparisons. In recent years, researchers have distinguished religiosity from spirituality.

Hodge (2003) has created a 6 item Intrinsic Spirituality Scale.

You will be designing and conducting a study for your research project in PSYC 515 by selecting variables from a pre-approved list. You must choose one variable from each of the three sections in the Lab Project Survey Development document.

  • The first variable is merely a demographic variable (that is, to provide a description of your sample – it is NOT part of your research question or your analysis).
  • The other two variables will serve as the basis of your study.
    • You will compare religiosity or spirituality with ONE other variable from a pre-selected list in the Lab Project Survey Development document (it cannot involve the same variable as your demographic question(s)).
    • Thus, one variable will be either a subscale of religiosity from Koenig & Bussing OR Hodge’s spirituality scale.
    • The second variable of interest is chosen from the Lab Project Survey Development document. Several of the variables use scales from previously published surveys. You will need to include those sources as part of your References.

You will need to find at least four additional articles related to your research question. You must discuss these articles within your introduction to help provide a rationale for your study – thus, their relevance must be clear. Include these articles in your References as well.

Names of all instructions / files associated with the Lab Project:

  • Lab Project Overview (this document)
  • Lab Project Survey Development (must be used to accomplish Phase 1)
  • Lab Project Survey Administration and Compilation (must be used to accomplish Phase 2)
  • Articles (located under Module/Week 3 “Additional Materials”):
  • Hodge (2003)
  • Koenig & Bussing (2010)
  • Lovibond & Lovibond (1995)
  • Macdonald & MacIntyre (1997)

Phase 1: Introduction (Discussion Board Forum 1: Module 3)

Both Discussion Board assignments for this course relate directly to the lab project that is posted in the Course Content. This lab project will investigate religiosity or spirituality and one other variable you selected.

For your first DB forum, you will be writing an Introduction section for your research project, a Reference section, and will need to include a copy of your survey. To prepare, first complete everything listed for this week’s reading and study. Then, read the Lab Project Survey Development document. If you chose religiosity, also read the Koenig and Bussing (2010) article. If you chose spirituality, read the Hodge (2003) article. Some of the other variables have articles or assigned readings to support their use as well. All articles cited in the Lab Project Survey Development document are available in the “Additional Materials” folder for Week 3. You only need to read the articles in this folder that are directly relevant to your study. (Note you CANNOT examine organizational religiosity and anxiety, as this is the example I will use).

You will then need to find FOUR additional articles that provide a basis to your research study using the Jerry Falwell Library (none of the articles provided in the “Additional Materials” folder will count towards these four).

  • At least three of the articles should report primary, empirical, quantitative research; no more than one can be a literature review/theoretical/ or meta-analysis article.
  • All should be from peer-reviewed journals. For a description of types of articles, please review Section 1 in the APA Manual.
  • All four articles should be relevant to your proposed study, and their relevance should be made explicitly clear in your introduction.
  • Given you will also refer to at least one article as a basis for your developed survey (i.e., either Koenig & Bussing, 2010 or Hodge, 2003), you will have at least five articles in your References for this phase.

Formatting: Remember to use topic sentences and transition sentences. Use an active voice, and follow APA guidelines from the APA Manual for a professional paper. Include an APA style References section and a copy of your survey as an Appendix. (Note – for this phase, you do not need to include a title page or abstract.)

This discussion board should be posted by uploading a single word document. This allows your peers and instructor to check your APA format as well as the content of the paper.

To complete Discussion Board 1 (Phase 1 of your Lab Project), make sure to address the following prompts:

  • Create an Introduction following APA communication guidelines.
    • Formatting reminders (make sure you use the APA Manual as a guide):
      • Make sure to include:
        • Title and running head (both of which should reflect your study’s topic – NOT that it is a phase or part of a class),
        • page numbers, in-text citations, complete reference list, and survey as an appendix.
      • Note: you do NOT need a title page or abstract.
    • Organization of introduction:
      • Start of introduction (remember you use the title of the paper in title case, bold, and centered (2.11; Figure 2.4)
      • Body of introduction: using topic sentences and transitions for continuity and good flow, make sure to include the following components IN THIS ORDER:
        • Frame the importance of the problem (3.4) – begin by clarifying the objective – whether it be theoretical, potential application, input for public policy, et cet..
        • Review at least 5 relevant articles (one assigned; four chosen by you). Quotes are not allowed in this course – use your own words. This is to:
          • Provide a scope of the problem, its context
          • Theoretical or practical implications
          • Emphasize pertinent findings and major conclusions
            • Describe similarities and differences among the research reviewed
            • Explain the relevance of each article to the proposed study
            • Discuss relevant methodological issues
        • Note: this section will be multiple paragraphs, but it should NOT consist of an article per paragraph – use the articles you’ve chosen to provide an overview of the problem and ultimately, to justify your research idea. Always use a topic sentence to express the main idea for each paragraph. If the next paragraph does not flow easily, use a transition sentence at the end of the previous paragraph.
        • In the final paragraph, state the purpose and rationale for your proposed study.
          • State the problem (which is always a lack of information or contradictory findings in the field) and a rationale for further exploration.
          • End the Introduction by explicitly stating the alternate hypothesis (people do not explicitly state the null hypothesis in research articles, although remember that is what you are statistically testing!!). Hint: remember “relationship” implies one type of statistical test whereas “difference” implies a different type of statistical test – so use the words to reflect what type of statistical test you’ll conduct!
  • Include a Reference section in APA format (see sections 9 – 10 in the APA Manual).
  • Include a copy of your proposed survey in an Appendix as the last page of your single word document (see Section 2 in the APA Manual). Do not collect data until your Phase 1 has been graded and your survey is approved!
    • Following the Lab Project Survey Development, you must include the Disclosure Statement at the top and a Directions section.
    • Then, include the questions relevant to your two selected variables. Remember – the questions you use to examine your variables must be directly from the Lab Project Survey Development document. You may not modify any of the questions or answer options without instructor approval.
    • An example survey is provided at the end of the Lab Project Survey Development document. Note its clean and professional appearance. Also note that you cannot use the two variables as shown in this example (organizational religiosity and anxiety) – you must choose some other combination.

Reply Prompt: Choose 2 classmates’ posts. Did they address everything they were supposed to in the prompt? Constructively critique their proposal, including both 1) what they have explained and supported well and 2) what you would suggest that they add or change. Use information you have learned during the course, the APA Manual, other courses/readings, and the sources above to help form your critique.

Important Considerations:

  • Because you are providing a thoughtful, educated critique, this discussion board prompt leaves no room for unsubstantiated opinions or claims, personal comments, or general comments such as the following, which will result in loss of points:
  • The word count may not include text from this prompt or direct quotes from classmates’ posts. If you include this type of material, make sure that you have enough words to reach the minimum word count without it.

Your thread must be at least 600 words

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