1. In your opinion, did the use of iconography appropriated from Roman pagan images facilitate or slow the progress of Christianity? Do you think it is possible that Roman authorities did not recognize the pagan images appropriated for Christian iconography? How did this shift within the Byzantine period?
2.Scholars used to address the stylized appearance of early Christian and Byzantine art as the result of a loss of artistic skill, as if the artists forgot how the Romans made their art. Based on what you have learned about the art of the era, does this explanation sound reasonable to you? Why or why not?
3. Compare and contrast a work of art or architecture from late Antiquity with one from the Byzantine period.
4. Light was highly symbolic in the Byzantine era. Is this still true today? How do we use light symbolically in the modern world and what does the light symbolize now? Compare and contrast your example briefly to a Byzantine artwork that utilizes light.
5. How does Hagia Sofia’s design reflects its function as a religious building. Which element do you feel is the most successful? If we think of Justinian as the head of the church as well as the state, the building takes on a political implication. What aspects of the building do you think would emphasize the emperor’s position in society? Is Byzantine Architecture more about the ruler or God?
6. How does viewing Byzantine representational art as Icons/Windows change the interpretations we give them? Does that adequately account for the change in style to more simplified and non-natural forms? Or do you think that there was a loss in artistic skill after the fall of the Roman Empire? Is the Byzantine understanding of Icon helpful in understanding our obsession with art in museums, where we place singular objects against a blank white wall within temple like complexes to be revered and honored?
7. Search for “islamic art paradise found” in youtube and watch youtube video . Feel free to start after the third minute as the introductory part of the first three minutes is irrelevant to the homework questions. Paradise is a concept that is closely connected to Islamic architecture. What are the most important similarities and diferences between the concept of heavan on earth within Christian and Islamic conceptions of the role for architecture? Consider the geometric motif and the use of calligraphy (the word) as art. How does the use of the word as art difer in creating a visual spectacle than the Byzantine use of mosaics?
8. Trace the Birth of Islam (Links to an external site.) through the Nature of Islamic Art (Links to an external site.) at the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Web site. Summarize how the aspects discussed in the Nature of Islamic Art (Links to an external site.) section, specifically the calligraphy section helps you to understand why this artform was so significant to Muslims.
9. Describe the cultural contributions made by Islam to Western Europe.
10.How does the Great Mosque of Damascus “owe much to the architecture of the Greco-Roman and Early Christian East”?
11. MOSQUE OF SELIM II- Sinan the Great was responsible for some of the masterworks of Ottoman architecture. His greatest work, the Mosque of Selim II in Edirne, Turkey was constructed to glorify his patron. It was also intended to surpass the Christian Hagia Sophia. What is your opinion of this strategy? Can you think of any other structures that pursued similar ends?
12. RELIGION AND ART- Discuss the effects that the religious beliefs and practices of Islam have on Islamic art. What do you think is the most important religious belief affecting Islamic art? Cite specific examples to support your answer.
13. Compare the manuscript styles that developed in this period. All of the images of Mathew, for instance, had the same function, to illustrate the opening page of the Gospel of Mathew as both an aid to religious contemplation as well as to provide an aesthetic experience. Do you believe that one of these is more effective than the others? What elements do you feel support your opinion?
14. The Carolingian Renaissance ended with Charlemagne. Why do you think his successors did not pursue the same vision of a “New Rome”? In what ways did medieval European art and architecture depart from classical Roman art and architecture? Did any of the civilizations retain characteristics of Roman art and architecture?
15. The Christian Church was the one unifying authority during this period. To what extent did the church preserve Western Culture and in what ways did they invent something entirely new? Use St. Michael’s Hildesheim as one of your examples
16. Why do you think there was such a strong positive reception of the concept of relics in Romanesque society? Are there modern religious and secular pilgrimage sites? Identify one and explain how its architecture or setting accommodates large numbers of pilgrims.
17. In light of the regional differences found in the art and architecture produced between 1050 and 1200, do you believe that it is accurate to apply a single stylistic label–Romanesque–to all of the objects and monuments? Why or why not?
18. Identify key elements of Romanesque architecture. Travel back in time to the Romanesque Village of Baraigne in France. Search for info on the Romanesque Village of Baraigne in FranceExplore the Romanesque church there and explain what makes it a typical Romanesque church and the similarities it has with at least one of the examples in your text.
19. Contrast the focus of life in the early Early Medieval period with the focus during the Romanesque period. What factors sparked the increase in building of churches in Western Europe? What were the various roles of figurative art, both two-dimensional and sculptural, during the Romanesque period?
20. The Bayeux Tapestry & Propaganda- The telling of events both leading up to and the subsequent invasion and victory of the Normans is clearly from the Norman perspective. Is it too strong to label this as propaganda? What is propaganda and do you think this is an appropriate term to describe the tapestry? How much information can we glean from the tapestry regarding social/political/military customs of the time? Visual representations are documents of a culture but how valid are they in giving us an accurate perspective? Think of some representations of our culture that might go down in history as accurate reflections of how we live and what biases they may present to future people.
21. Visit the Washington National Cathedral Website, www.nationalcatehdral.og (Links to an external site.) and view the below youtube videos before answering the questions.https://youtu.be/pBrhqpb4wWk (Links to an external site.)
Compare and Contrast the exterior architecture of the National Cathedral to one example from our course. Why do you think the Gothic style was chosen for this national cathedral? There are many interesting aspects to the cathedral, including its utilization of the same essential building materials and technologies of Gothic architects and engineers being constructed entirely with Masonry and load bearing walls. How effective is the iconography at conveying the stories of our nation? Is the inclusion of Darth Vader as a gargoyle sculpture a document of our culture, or pandering to populist tastes?
22. Romanesque religious art has been described as scaring Christians into behaving well, while much Gothic art is seen as approachable and intimate. Use examples to agree or disagree with the above statement. In your opinion, which artistic style was more effective? Explain your answer.
23. Abbott Suger believed in the symbolic value of colored light. Is light still considered symbolic? Offer an example of a symbolic use of white or colored light and compare it to light in Gothic churches. Paintings use the principle of absorption and reflection of light, where stained glass allows a specific wavelength of light to pass through generating the brilliant color. How does the use of light as an artistic medium alter our experience? How is Gothic use of light similar and different from the use of light in Byzantine Art?
24. Compare and contrast a Gothic cathedral to a Romanesque church. What is generally believed to have been the purpose of the sculptural programs of the portals of the great Gothic cathedrals? How did these programs differ from the sculptural programs of Romanesque portals? Use examples to support your essay. Explain why Romanesque sculpture is described as “fearsome” and Gothic as “kind”. What role did politics and economics play in the creation of Gothic churches and in the spread of the Gothic style throughout Europe?
25. Trace the changes visible in the treatment of the human figure from the beginning of the Gothic era to the late fourteenth century in both painting and sculpture. Cite specific examples in your answer.
26. Pick a single object from this module as the best example that defines Gothic Art and explain your choice. (French Cathedral)
27. The word Gothic conjures up all kinds of idea in the popular imagination. Pick an example of something that you consider “Gothic” in popular culture and discuss how it measures up. How has the Gothic style continued to capture the imagination of our contemporary culture? Pick one example and analyze the use of the Gothic style and how its aesthetics and politics have been adapted and utilized. Make sure to point out where aspects and tenets of the Gothic style have been misrepresented or avoided. One example that I have is the successful UNDERWORLD film series. In my answer I might discuss the use of the actress as a gargoyle on a gothic cathedral but the Gothic style is one of light, and this is emphasizing darkness.
28. Evaluate the terms Byzantine/ Romanesque/ & Gothic by discussing the evolution in the depiction of Christ. How was the depiction changed and modified? Consider the political and social climate of each period and how it influenced and was influenced by the changing identity of Christ. Make sure to use specific examples to support your essay
29. Compare and contrast the below two images. ( I added the files of the two churches)
30. Define the below term and give an example of an art work that relates to it from this course and explain your reasoning
31. Define the below term and give an example of an art work that relates to it from this course and explain your reasoning
32. Define the below term and give an example of an art work that relates to it from this course and explain your reasoning
33. Define the below term and give an example of an art work that relates to it from this course and explain your reasoning
34. Define the below term and give an example of an art work that relates to it from this course and explain your reasoning
35. Imagine that you come upon this image in a museum in the Gothic Art section and want to impress the person that you are with. Demonstrate how much you have learned in this course by relating what you have learned in this course to the below image. Do not limit yourself to one section of the course. Feel free to discuss this image in relation to anything that we have covered. I have provided you all of the information that would be on a museum wall object label.
CHRIST IN MAJESTY with Angels and The Angel of God Directs Saint John to Write the Book of Revelation, 1180 CE. Tempera, gold and ink on parchment, metal leaf, 17×11″. (the image of angels I attached)
around 100 words each response and 150+ words for the longer questions. I need this one to be done by July 29 at midnight please, it can not be late. I also have another essay that is due on the same date and on the same topic, if you would like for me to give you that as well.
Use these sources and any others you may need